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What do you know of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) ?

What do you know of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) ? 

About 3% of patients will develop PVE by the end of the first year after valve replacement; thereafter, the incidence is lower. PVE is classified into two groups:

• Early:occurring within 2 months of surgery. It develops as a result of intra-operative contamination of the prosthetic valve or as a consequence of a post-operative nosocomial infection, such as sternotomy infection, postoperative pneumonia, urinary tract infection or intravenous cathether-related insertion. The clinical features may be masked by the ordinary events in the postoperative course or by another infection. Cutaneous signs are not common.

• Late PVE: develops more than 2 months after valve surgery. It can occur after transient bacteraemia as in minor skin or upper respiratory tract infections or following dental or urinary manipulations. The non-cardiac manifestations resemble those of native valve infective endocarditis. Although this classification is …

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