About 80% of all strokes are due to cerebral infarction resulting from thrombotic or embolic occlusion of a cerebral artery (J Neural
Neurosurg Psych 1990; 53: 16-22). The remaining 20% are caused by either intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage.
• Vascular event (thrombosis, embolism or haemorrhage).
• Subdural haematoma.
• Multiple sclerosis.
• Embolism (look for underlying valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation).
• Connective tissue disorder. • Neurosyphilis.
• lntracranial infection: look for underlying acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), otitis media, cyanotic heart disease.