Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis is not recommended for patients with atrial septal defects (repaired or unrepaired) unless a concomitant valvular abnor-mality (e.g. mitral valve cleft or prolapse) is present.
Leonardo da Vinci's description in 1513 of a 'perforating channel' in the atrial septum is believed to be the first recorded account of a congenital malformation of the human heart.
Rene Lutembacher, a French physician, described the Lutembacher syndrome in 1916. Mary Holt, cardiologist, King% Culluge Hu~pltdI, London. Samuel Oram, cardiologist, King's College Hospital, London.