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What are the complications of infective endocarditis ?

What are the complications of infective endocarditis ?

 • Congestive heart failure: may develop acutely or insidiously; it portends a grave prognosis. • Conduction disturbances caused by abscesses in ventricular septum.

 • Valve destruction: acute regurgitation, pulmonary oedema, heart failure.

• Embolism: occurs in 22-50% of cases, leading to infarction in any vascular bed including lungs, coronary arteries, spleen, bowel, and extremities; renal: flank pain and haematuria.

• Local extension of infection: purulent pericarditis, aortic root abscess (may cause sinus Valsalva fistula), myocardial abscess (conduction disturbance).

• Septic emboli to vasa vasorum: may lead to mycotic aneurysms anywhere in vas-cular tree; most worrying in cerebral vessels, resulting in cerebral haemorrhage. • Distal infection (metastatic): due to septic emboli, e.g. brain abscess, cerebritis. • Candidal endocarditis: may be manifest by fungal endophthalmitis.

• Glomerulonephritis: the renal lesions of SBE a…

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